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    A common issue in a typical web-application is the rendering of the view, after the main logic of the action has been completed, and therefore, the Hibernate Session has already been closed and the database transaction has ended. If you access detached objects that have been loaded in the Session inside your JSP (or any other view rendering mechanism), you might hit an unloaded collection or a proxy that isn't initialized. The exception you get is: LazyInitializationException: Session has been closed (or a very similar message).
  • One table per subclass vs One Table per class hierarchy (using a discriminator)